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Faiva Lakalaka (Konga 2) Featured

Lakalaka 'a e Laione 'o Kolofo'ou Lakalaka 'a e Laione 'o Kolofo'ou

‘ILO MO E POTO & FONUA MO E TALA
[KNOWLEDGE & SKILL AND CULTURE & LANGUAGE]

Ko e Faiva Lakalaka
[Konga 2]

‘Oku fa‘oaki ‘a e ‘ilo [knowledge] mo e poto [skill] mei he ako [education] he me‘angāue ko e fonua [culture] pea mo fetu‘utaki he me‘angāue ko e tala [language) he tā moe vā.

Filōsofia/Teolia ‘o e Tā-Vā ‘oe ‘Iai
[Time-Space Philosophy/Theory of Reality]

[Hoko atu mei he Konga 1 mo e kamata]

‘Oku ‘i ai pē foki ‘a e faiva tupu‘a ko e “milolua” (performance art of kava-making) ‘aia ‘oku makehe mei he kaveinga ‘o e lakalaka ‘a Kolovai ko e “Milolua” mo e lau ko e faiva fo‘ou mei he faiva lakalaka, ‘a ia ‘oku fai he taumafakava, ‘o fakatoulōua ‘a e Taumafakava FakaKauhala‘uta-FakaKauhalalalo, FakaLotoMu‘a ‘a e Tu‘i Tonga ‘i Olotele [‘i kauhala‘uta he hala ki Hahake] mo e Tu‘i Ha‘atakalaua ‘i Fonuamotu mo Fonuatanu [‘i kauhalalalo mo kauhalatahi he hala ki Hahake] mo e Taumafakava FakaMuifonua, FakaKanokupolu ‘a e Tu‘i Kanokupolu ‘i ‘Āhau he muifonua ‘i Hihifo, ‘a ia ‘oku ‘iloa ‘a e taumafakava ‘a e Tu‘i Tonga mo e Tu‘i Ha‘atakalaua ko e Milolua FakaLotoMu‘a mo e taumafakava ‘a e Tu‘i Kanokupolu ko e Milolua FakaMuifonua.

‘Oku ‘uhinga ‘a e “milolua” ki he founga hono “ngaohi” ‘a e kava he taumafakava ‘a e Tu‘i Tonga mo e Tu‘i Ha‘atakalaua mo e taumafakava ‘a e Tu‘i Kanokupolu, ‘a ia ‘oku na faitatau ha ngaahi me‘a ‘o hangē ko e tuki ‘oe kava mo to e faikehekehe ha ngaahi me‘a ‘o hangē ko e fakahuni hono tatau ‘oe kava. ‘Oku ngalingali ko e “milolua” ko e toki mafuli mei he “vilolua” ko e mafuli mei he “viloua,” ‘o ‘uhinga kihe “vilo tu‘oua” ‘a e haka‘i [haka vilo] ‘ehe ongo nima hono “angi,” “fesi,” “hoka,” “tuki,” “palu,” “tatau,” “fakatau” moe “tufa” ‘o e kava. ‘Oku ngali ko e lea koe “vilolua” mo e “viloua” kae ‘ikai ko e “milolua” mo e “miloua.” ‘Oku ofi ia he lea ko e “takai” moe “vilo” he‘ene ‘asi he “takaivilo” mo e “takavilo” ka e ‘ikai ko e “takaimilo” mo e “takamilo,” ‘o hangē ko e “takai” mo e “vilo” ka e ‘ikai ko e “takai” mo e “milo” ‘a e ve‘eteka.

‘Oku to e ‘asi ‘a e liliu mei he “takai” mo e “vilo” kihe “takai” mo e “milo” he konga ‘o e himi ‘oku ofi ‘o pehē, “‘Oku takamilo ‘a e va‘e hono saliote, ‘Oku takamilo hono va‘e, ‘Oku takamilo ko e fakaa‘u ki Langi” mo e kupu ‘o e lotu fa‘a hake he ngaahi lotu ‘oku pehē, “‘Oku takamilo ‘a e lotu he ‘otu Tonga mo e ‘otu muli kae foki mai kihe ngāue‘anga mamafa mo mamalu ‘o e pongipongi ni” mo e “milolua” he faiva milolua ‘a e ouau faka‘ei‘eiki mo molumalu ‘o e taumafakava. ‘Oku ofi ‘a e liliu lea hala ko ‘eni he ngaahi liliu lea hala lahi, ‘o hangē ko e liliu lea mei he “ihupe‘e” ki he “hiupe‘e, “u‘akai” ki he “‘uakai,” “lotolotonga” ki he “lolotonga,” “mā‘uhinga” ki he “mahu‘inga,” “taimini” ki he “tainimi” mo e “‘aha” ki he “ha‘a.” ‘Oku tupu ‘eni mei he vāofi ‘a e silapa ‘o e lea, ‘o hangē ko e “ihu” mo e “hiu” mo e “u‘a” mo e “‘ua.”

‘Oku to e ‘i ai pē foki mo e ongo faiva ko e “tulihoosi” [performance art of horse-hunting] mo e “no‘o‘anga” [performance art of shark-noosing], ‘o makehe ia mei he ongo kaveinga ‘o e faiva lakalaka ‘a e fonua ko ‘Eua ko e “Tulihoosi” mo e kolo ko Navutoka ko e “No‘o‘anga” mo to e taku ko ha ongo faiva fo‘ou mei he faiva lakalaka, ‘a ia ‘oku fai ‘i ‘uta mo fai ‘i tahi fakatou‘osi. ‘Oku ‘i ai ‘a e faiva tupu‘a ko e faiva tulimanu (performance art of animal-hunting), ‘a ia ‘oku kau ai ‘a e faiva fo‘ou ko e faiva tulihoosi. Ko ia ai, ‘oku ‘ikai ha faiva fo‘ou mei he faiva lakalaka mo e kaveinga ko e tulihoosi ‘o e faiva lakalaka ‘a ‘Eua mo e faiva no‘o‘anga ‘o e faiva lakalaka ‘a Navutoka. ‘Oku fekau‘aki ‘a e “nusi” mo e kupesi mo e kakala ‘a e tufunga lalava (material art of kafa sennit-lashing) mo e nimamea‘a tuikakala (fine art of flower-designing), ‘a ia ‘oku tui ‘a e kakala ‘a e nimamea‘a tuikakala mei he kupesi ‘a e tufunga lalava.

‘Oku to e tatau mo e “kumitu‘i” mo e “‘ava” ko e kaveinga ‘o e ongo lakalaka ‘a Tongaleleka mo e motu ko Nomuka ka e ‘ikai ko e faiva fo‘ou mei he faiva lakalaka, ‘o hangē ko e “nusi” ko e kaveinga ‘o e lakalaka ‘a e kolo ko Kolonga, “no‘o‘anga” ko e kaveinga ‘o e lakalaka ‘a e kolo ko Navutoka, “tulihoosi” koe kaveinga ‘o e lakalaka ‘a e fonua ko ‘Eua mo e “milolua” ko e kaveinga ‘o e lakalaka ‘a e kolo ko Kolovai, ‘a ia ‘oku ‘ikai malava ke lau ko ha ngaahi faiva fo‘ou kehekehe mei he faiva lakalaka. ‘Oku ‘ikai ko ha ngaahi faiva fo‘ou kinautolu mei he faiva lakalaka kotoa pē ‘oku kehekehe honau ngaahi kaveinga neongo ko e ngaahi faiva kehekehe ‘a e faiva tulihoosi ‘oku fai ‘i ‘uta (‘a ia ko e faiva tulimanu), faiva no‘o‘anga ‘oku fai ‘i tahi faiva mo e faiva milolua (vilolua) ‘oku fai he taumafakava.

‘Oku hingoa ‘a e ngaahi lakalaka ‘o e ngaahi kolo ko Lapaha, Mu‘a, ko e Lomipeau, Kanokupolu, Hihifo, ko e Fola‘osi, Kolomotu‘a, Nuku‘alofa, ko e Laione mo Kolofo‘ou, Nuku‘alofa, ko e ‘Ikale. ‘Oku lahi fau ‘a e ngaahi faiva lakalaka ‘a Lapaha, Kanokupolu, Kolomotu‘a mo Kolofo‘ou ‘oku nau kaveinga kehekehe, ‘o hangē ko e “tulihoosi,” “‘ava,” “no‘o‘anga,” “nusi,” “kumitu‘i” mo e “milolua” ‘a e ongo motu ko ‘Eua mo Nomuka mo e ngaahi kolo ko Navutoka, Kolonga, Tongoleleka mo Kolovai kae ‘ikai ‘uhinga ia ke lau kinautolu ko e ngaahi faiva fo‘ou mei he lakalaka. ‘Oku nau ke i faiva lakalaka kotoa mo honau ngaahi kaveinga kehekehe ‘oku ‘ikai ‘uhinga ia ke ui kinautolu ko e ngaahi fo‘ou ‘o makehe mei he faiva lakalaka.

‘Oku hoko mo e me‘a tatau heni, ‘a ia koe ‘ikai ha faiva koe “Lomipeau,” “Fola‘osi,” “Laione,” mo e “’Ikale” he ko e ngaahi hingoa ia ‘a e lakalaka ‘oe ngaahi kolo ko Lapaha, Kanokupolu, Kolomotu‘a mo Kolofo‘ou, ‘o hangē ko e kaveinga ko e “Tulihoosi,” “‘Ava,” “Nusi,” “No‘o‘anga,” “Kumitu‘i” mo e “Milolua” ‘a e ongo motu ko ‘Eua mo Nomuka mo e ngaahi kolo ko Kolonga, Navutoka, Tongoleleka mo Kolovai ka e ‘ikai koe ngaahi faiva fo‘ou ‘oku makehe mei he faiva lakalaka. ‘Oku ngāue‘aki ‘a e ngaahi faiva motu‘a ko e “milolua,” “tulihoosi” mo e “no‘o‘anga” ko e kaveinga ‘o e ngaahi lakalaka ka e ‘ikai koe ma‘uhala ko e ngaahi faiva fo‘ou mei he faiva lakalaka.

‘Oku fakakaveinga hono fakafatu mo fakafa‘u ‘a e faiva ta‘anga kotoa, ‘o tatau mo e ngaahi kaveinga kehekehe ‘oe ta‘anga ma‘ulu‘ulu, ta‘anga tau‘olunga, ta‘anga ‘ofa, ta‘anga fetau, ta‘anga tutulu pē ta‘anga tengihia pē ta‘anga tangilaulau, ta‘anga viki, ta‘anga laumātanga, ta‘anga lau‘uhinga, ta‘anga lau‘eiki, mo e ta‘anga lauhisitōlia. ‘Oku hangē ia ko e ngaahi kaveinga kehekehe ‘o e ta‘anga tutulu ko e “Tutulu ‘Ene ‘Afio he Pekia ‘a Fusipala” ‘a Kuini Sālote, ta‘anga viki ko e “Hā‘ele ki Pilitānia” ‘a Peni Tutu‘ila mo e ta‘anga fetau ko e “Vai-‘o-Moko” ‘a Nausaimoe Tutu‘ila. ‘Oku nau ke i faiva ta‘anga tutulu, faiva ta‘anga viki mo faiva ta‘anga fetau takitaha kotoa pē ka e ‘ikai ko e ngaahi faiva fo‘ou hono fetongi‘aki honau takitaha kaveinga.

ANFF leva e malanga ka e a‘u,
‘Ofa atu fau moe manatu ma’u,

Hūfanga Dr ‘Ōkusitino Māhina
Professor of Art, Culture and Critical Anthropology
Tonga International Academy [TIA] - Tonga &
Vava‘u Academy for Critical Inquiry and Applied Research [VACIAR] - Tonga
&
Maui-TāVā-He-Ako Dr Tēvita Ō. Ka‘ili
Professor of International Cultural Studies-Anthropology and Pacific Studies
BYU – Hawai‘i &
VACIAR – Tonga
&
‘Aisea Nau Matthew Māhina
PhD Scholar in Art and Philosophy
AUT University – Auckland, Aotearoa NZ &
VACIAR - Tonga

2 comments

  • Hufanga (Okusitino Mahina)
    Hufanga (Okusitino Mahina) Wednesday, 15 March 2017 18:39 Comment Link

    KOE TALATUPU'A MOE FANANGA
    Fakamolemole 'a hou'eiki moe ngaahi ha'a
    He 'oku mama'o mo faingata'a 'ae fa'anga
    Koe tolutalu na'e tu'u holo he ngaahi halanga
    Kuo fu'u puli pea 'alu mo hono to'utangata
    Ka neongo 'ene vao fihi mo toe va'ava'a
    Kae fai pe ha vavaku mo si'a fa'ala
    Kia Touia-'o-Futuna koe 'Uluaki Maka
    Na'e fai mei ai hotau kamata'anga
    Kehe koe talatupu'a ia moe fananga
    'Oku utuutu mei ai si'a kau fa'a
    -- koe ta'anga lautala mo lau'uhinga koe fatu 'ehe motu'a punake tupu'a 'iloa ko Tafolo mo talatukutohi / talakaetohi he ongo lea Tonga moe 'Ingilisi 'e Edward Winslow Gifford he'ene tohi 'iloa na'e pulusi he 1924 ta'u koe, "Tongan Myths and Tales" ("Ngaahi Talatupu'a moe Ngaahi Talanoa FakaTonga") --

    Malo fau Tafaanga hono afea 'ae faikava talanoa 'oku feia, 'aia 'oku tefito hono tukumai kihe ha'ofanga 'ae 'ilo moe poto kuo 'u'ufi mo puli 'ka 'oku toe kumi ke ma'u, 'aia 'oku fa'oaki he fonua mo fetu'utaki he tala/lea ke tau fevahevaheaki, 'o taumu'a ke tau ma'u ha maama moe mahino 'oku lahi ange, 'aia 'oku hoko ia koe fakakoloa kihe fonua moe tala hono fakatolonga, taui mo malu'i ke tu'uloa (talaefonua; talafakafonua).

    'Oku 'ikai koia pe ka koe taha ia 'ae ngaahi kaveinga fungani 'oe Nepituno ke nofo ma'u pe 'ae talanoa he fakaako, 'o tukuange 'ae 'uhinga ke nau feteleni ke ma'u ai 'ae lelei moe mo'oni, 'aia 'oku 'ikai tefito he lau-sino pea mo hai-'a-hai, 'o 'ikai lau ai kimu'a 'ae taumu'a mo ma'u ai ha maama moe mahino 'oku toe lahi mo fakautuutu ange.

    'Oku 'ata fau ka 'oku 'iai ha toe ma'u 'aha kau tu'ukimu'a he tufonua fonua moe tauhi fonua pea tukumai ke tau fe'inasi'aki ai he 'uhinga lelei mo fakalangi kae fakamamani, 'o 'ikai koe tau'aki fakahaha mafi moe 'ilo moe poto lahi, 'o iku 'o 'ikai nofo 'ae talanoa he 'uhinga kae afe mamahi 'o senita he lau-sino mo hai-'a-hai he tala moe fonua (talafakafonua; talafakafonua).

    Na'e fokotu'u he talanoa 'ae 'uhinga 'oku 'ikai ha faiva fo'ou 'oku kehe mei he faiva lakalaka 'aia ko hono kaveinga koe "Milolua" 'a Kolovai neongo ai 'oku 'iai pe 'ae faiva motu'a koe faiva milolua, 'aia koe hingoa faka'ei'eiki ia 'oe faiva motu'a koe faiva ngaohikava 'oe taumafakava 'ae Tu'i Tonga moe Tu'i Ha'atakalaua koe Milolua FakaLotoMu'a ki mu'a moe taumafakava 'ae Tu'i Kanokupolu ki mui koe Milolua FakaMuifonua.

    Na'e toe ta'ota'o atu ai 'ae 'uhinga 'oku matamata koe feto'oaki 'ae lea "milolua" moe lea "vilolua" pe lea "miloua" moe lea "viloua" he 'uhinga 'oku 'uhinga tatau pe 'ae ongo mata'itohi koe "lua" moe "ua" moe mata'ifika koe "2." 'Oku toe mahino ange 'ae feto'oaki ko 'eni ke kainga vaofi ma'u pe 'ae ongo lea koe "vilo" moe "takai" -- 'o hange koe "vilotakai," "takaivilo," moe "takavilo" -- kae 'ikai kainga 'ae ongo lea koe "milo" moe "takai" -- 'o hange koe "milotakai," "takaimilo" moe "takamilo."

    Na'e fokotu'u ai 'ae 'uhinga 'oku ngalingali koe ma'u 'ae lea koe "milolua" -- 'aia 'oku lau he 'uhinga kuo fokotu'u koe "vilolua" -- mei he makatu'unga hono "ngaohi" 'oe kava he taumafakava -- 'o lahilahi "vilo" mo "takai" tu'oua/tu'olua (2) ma'u pe ae haka 'oe nima (moe mata) (haka "vilo" mo "takai") -- 'aia 'oku kamata mei hono "angi" 'oe kava kihe "fesi" 'oe kava kihe "hoka" 'oe kava kihe "tauhi" 'oe kava kihe "tuki" 'oe kava kihe "palu" 'oe kava kihe "tufa" 'oe kava moe ha fua.

    'Oku 'asi lelei 'ene "vilo" mo "takai" tu'oua/tu'olua (2) 'ae haka 'oe nima moe mata kae lahilahi kihe nima he teki ("vilo" mo "takai") 'ae 'ulu moe haka 'ae nima ("vilo" mo "takai" takitu'oua/takitu'olua (2) ma'u pe -- 'aia 'oku hange koe haka fakaloulohi'imofisi 'ae nima moe haka fakahuni 'oe fau he lotolotonga 'ae "palu" 'oe kava moe ha fua.

    Na'e toe fokotu'u moe 'uhinga 'oku hangehange na'e 'ikai ngata pe he mafuli 'ae lea "vilo" moe "takai" kihe kihe lea "milo" moe "takai" -- 'o kau ai 'ae mafuli malie 'oe lea "milohi" kihe "milihi" (moe "milomilohi" kihe "milimilihi") na'a ke lave kiai, 'aia 'oku matamata koe mafuli mei he lea koe "vilohi" (moe "vilovilohi").

    'Oku 'ikai koia pe ka 'oku toe mafuli 'ae lea "vilo" moe "takai" kihe "vilohi" moe "vilihi" kihe "vili" kihe "vilingia" kihe "havili" kihe "havilingia" -- 'aia 'oku ngalingali koe ma'u mei he anga tefito 'oe "matangi" (/"avangi") he'ene "angi" -- 'o "vilo" mo "takai" -- 'aia 'oku fa'a he'aki 'o pehe,"'Oku 'iai 'ae matangi angi malohi 'oku "vilo" mo "takai" holo he fakatokelau hahake 'o Vava'u."

    'Oku hangehange na'e makatu'unga ai hono liliu 'ae lea 'Ingilisi koe "drill" koe "vili," 'o 'uhinga kihe "vilo" mo "takai" hono "mata" (mata'i vili [eye of the drill]) pe "ava" (ava'i vili [hole of the drill]) he ta-va 'oku ngaue'aki ai koe me'angaue kihe tufunga langafale moe ha fua 'ae ngaahi ngaue pehe.

    Oku toe ngaue'aki he fonua moe tala/lea 'ae ngaahi lea koe "vili," "vilivili," "vivili," "vilitaki," "vilita'e'unua," "tavilivili," "fakavilivili," "fakahavilivili" moe "fakahavilinga" (koe hingoa 'oe matanga he motu ko Matamaka 'i Vava'u) he 'uhinga tatau, 'aia koe "vilo" moe "takai" (kae 'ikai koe "milo" moe "takai") 'ene angi, 'o fakamata (fakavilotakai).mo fakaava (fakavilotakai) hono anga mo 'ene to'onga.

    'Oku tau ui fakaTonga foki 'ae lea faka'Ingilisi koe "propeller" 'oha vaka koe "tapili," 'o matamata koe liliu mei he lea Tonga koe "tavilivvili" koe liliu mei he lea Tonga koe "tavilovilo," 'aia koe ma'u pe mei he'ene "vilo" mo "takai" 'ene angafai moe to'ongafai

    'Oku toe hange pe ko hono ui hono "tavilovilo" 'ae ii (fan) koe "ta'ili," tapili," "ta'ili'ili" moe "tapilipili" 'oe matangi/avangi moe havili ke ma'u 'ae matangi/avangi moe havili mokomoko, 'aia koe ha'u pe mei he lea koe "vilo" moe "takai."

    'Oku toe 'iai 'ae mafuli malie 'oe lea koe "fakavilovilo" kihe lea koe "fakafilofilo," 'aia 'oku hangehange koe 'uhinga kihe "vilo" moe "takai" 'ae "filo" he'ene fihi mo fihifihi. 'E lava nai ke tau lau 'ae "fakavilovilo" koe "fakamilomilo" moe "fakafilofilo" koe "fakamilomilo -- 'o hange ko hono taku 'oe "vilolua" koe "milolua" moe "takaivilo"/"takavilo" koe "takaimilo"/"takamilo?"

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  • Tafaanga
    Tafaanga Monday, 13 March 2017 03:08 Comment Link

    Malo mu'a hono 'omai 'a e ngaahi fakamatala ko'eni pea 'oku 'aonga lahi 'a e lukuluku fakakaukau ko'eni ki hono fakalahi 'etau 'ilo ki hotau tala mo e ngaahi ouau fakafonua pea 'oku mahu'inga foki.

    'Oku mahino foki 'oku takitaha nofo atu pe foki 'a e matu'a mei he ngaahi kolo takitaha mo 'enau ma'u ki he'enau faiva takitaha ka 'oku 'ikai foki ke malava kenau kau mai ki he potalanoa 'oku tau fakahoko heni. 'Oku toe mahino foki koe anga 'eni 'a e fakatotolo 'a e kau tangata ni pea 'oku 'ikai foki koe tonu 'eni ia ki he tokolahi ka koe anga 'eni 'enau ma'u makatu'unga he fekumi na'a nau fakahoko pea 'oku natula pehe ni pe ia.

    'Oku fai e malie'ia he faka'uhinga ki he "milolua" mo e "viloua" 'a ia ki he anga 'eku ma'u vaivai 'oku 'ikai ke vilo tu'o ua hono haka'i e milolua ia ka 'oku lahi 'a e ngaahi vaa'i haka mo 'ene mafulifuli pehe ki he'ene takai pea 'oku fihi foki 'o 'ikai ke tu'o ua 'a 'ene vilo pea 'oku tau sio pe foki ai 'i he milolua hono toutou fakahoko pea 'oku lahi mo hono faitaa'i vitio 'o tauhi.

    'Oku 'ikai ngata ai ka 'oku ongo melie mo faka'ofo'ofa 'a e ongo mo e silapa 'o e fo'i lea milolua 'o 'ikai hange koe viloua 'o ki'i ongo tamaki pea 'ikai vovo ki he fanongo. 'Oku 'i ai 'a e taimi 'e ni'ihi 'oku tau feinga ke faka'uhinga 'a e lea 'o fakatatau ki he'etau fiema'u pea tetau kikihi ai pea iku mole 'a e 'uhinga totonu 'o e lea. 'Oku 'i ai pe 'etau 'akau koe milo pea koe 'akau fefeka mo malohi na'e ngaue'aki ki he ta povai, kumete, ike, tutua, 'esia fue mo e ha fua. 'Oku toe 'iai pe foki mo 'etau lea koe "lua" pea 'oku lahi mo mohu hono ngaahi 'uhinga pea toe malie hange koe luolua, luahoko, luafasi, 'aungalua, taulua, fa'onelua, fatanalua mo e ha fua.

    Ko e milohi 'o kainga mo e milihi na'a tau anga maheni pe ai mei tuai pea na'e toe ngaue 'aki pe 'a e filohi (filohivalu) pea 'oku malava pe ke faka'uhinga 'o fakatatau ki hono 'uhinga mo 'ene fekau'aki mo e ouau taumafakava.

    'E mahu'inga pe foki he taimi tatau ke 'omai ha lau mei Ha'angata Motu'a he ko kinautolu 'oku 'anautolu 'a e fatongia koia mo e koloa tukufakaholo ni pea 'e ma'u ai 'a e malie.

    'Oku fai e fakamalo ki he kau tangata ni mo hono 'omai e fakamatala ni he 'oku tau ako mei ai pea tau tufi 'o fa'o ki he'etau takitaha 'oa na'a 'aonga ki he fononga.

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